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 The broken coal seams with their intervening layers of shale and sandstone therefore once formed the tops of the Pendle ridges and Hameldon hills, but have been denuded by the action of frost, rain and wind and carried away by streams, thus leaving the harder underlying millstone grit exposed. Further down the slopes of the hills, the coal measures appeared on the surface and have been mined in many places as outcrop workings. A seam of coal which was worked in 1600 on the site of Scott Park was identified in 1895 as the Dandy Seam. Another coal outcrop was worked on the Ridge in 1578, while on the Pendle side a "colle bedde " in the Old Laund gave "fire bot " for many years before 1580, Similarly the sandstones are quarried where the overlay is not too thick. The Dyneley Knott flags and the Old Laurenee Rock have been worked in the Deerplay area, the Dandy Mine Rock and the Tim Bobbin Rock are worked in Habergham, while the Gorpley Grit was used in the construction of Hurstwood Reservoir. \\ The broken coal seams with their intervening layers of shale and sandstone therefore once formed the tops of the Pendle ridges and Hameldon hills, but have been denuded by the action of frost, rain and wind and carried away by streams, thus leaving the harder underlying millstone grit exposed. Further down the slopes of the hills, the coal measures appeared on the surface and have been mined in many places as outcrop workings. A seam of coal which was worked in 1600 on the site of Scott Park was identified in 1895 as the Dandy Seam. Another coal outcrop was worked on the Ridge in 1578, while on the Pendle side a "colle bedde " in the Old Laund gave "fire bot " for many years before 1580, Similarly the sandstones are quarried where the overlay is not too thick. The Dyneley Knott flags and the Old Laurenee Rock have been worked in the Deerplay area, the Dandy Mine Rock and the Tim Bobbin Rock are worked in Habergham, while the Gorpley Grit was used in the construction of Hurstwood Reservoir. \\
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-So far only the strata beneath the surface have been discussed, but probably the Burnley householder is more concerned about the nature of the soil in his garden. ​ A Burnley garden has generally a short depth of turf and "​made"​ soil overlying a heavy clay which is many feet in thickness, This clay is the result of glaciers which once spread over the northern parts of England to such depth that in our district only the tops of Pendle, Hameldon and Boulsworth were left uncovered by the ice. There appear to have been two glaciers which slowly advanced over this district at the same time; one came from the Lake District, and the other from the Ribble Valley. When at their maximm, the glaciers still continued to move forward, grinding shales, sandstones and softer rocks into mud and tearing great rocks from the hills as they slowly passed. At the most southerly points, the ice melted, mud and water in enormous quantities flowed away and the ice-borne rocks and boulders fell and lay where the glaciers melted. At first the water from the Burnley glaciers poured into the Cliviger valley. and the Shedden valley became a deep lake; then as the thawing of such enormous masses of ice continued, some of the water overflowed into the Rawtenstall valley to create a lake Irwell: Finally the ice cap completely disappeared from this area, but our district lay at the bottom of a great lake which stretched from Colne to Darwen. Sand, mud, stones ​nud clay were still being deposited into this lake by the waters which came pouring from the now more northerly glaciers. Thus was formed the all-too-familiar clay of Burnley gardens. ​ \\+So far only the strata beneath the surface have been discussed, but probably the Burnley householder is more concerned about the nature of the soil in his garden. ​ A Burnley garden has generally a short depth of turf and "​made"​ soil overlying a heavy clay which is many feet in thickness, This clay is the result of glaciers which once spread over the northern parts of England to such depth that in our district only the tops of Pendle, Hameldon and Boulsworth were left uncovered by the ice. There appear to have been two glaciers which slowly advanced over this district at the same time; one came from the Lake District, and the other from the Ribble Valley. When at their maximm, the glaciers still continued to move forward, grinding shales, sandstones and softer rocks into mud and tearing great rocks from the hills as they slowly passed. At the most southerly points, the ice melted, mud and water in enormous quantities flowed away and the ice-borne rocks and boulders fell and lay where the glaciers melted. At first the water from the Burnley glaciers poured into the Cliviger valley. and the Shedden valley became a deep lake; then as the thawing of such enormous masses of ice continued, some of the water overflowed into the Rawtenstall valley to create a lake Irwell: Finally the ice cap completely disappeared from this area, but our district lay at the bottom of a great lake which stretched from Colne to Darwen. Sand, mud, stones ​mud clay were still being deposited into this lake by the waters which came pouring from the now more northerly glaciers. Thus was formed the all-too-familiar clay of Burnley gardens. ​ \\
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 The Ribblesdale glacier brought a mud of a blue grey colour together with so much limestone that in the Thursden and Shedden valleys and in Hapton Park, lime kilns were built in the 17th and 18th centuries to burn the lime, The north-west glacier brought a mud of a reddish brown colour with many great blocks of stone. One of these may be seen in Towneley Park; another one from the Lake District still lies buried in the clay at the bottom of School Lane. Sometimes the glaciers brought sand which the waters swirled into pockets, such as may be found in many parts of the town. Sand and gravel mounds on Hameldon, Red Lees and Cliviger Laithe are due to deposits made in lakes formed by water which could not easily escape, The "​hummocky"​ mounds in the neighbourhood of Walk Mill seem to indicate that at that point the glacier ceased to retreat for a considerable time due to a return of the extreme cold weather conditions. \\ The Ribblesdale glacier brought a mud of a blue grey colour together with so much limestone that in the Thursden and Shedden valleys and in Hapton Park, lime kilns were built in the 17th and 18th centuries to burn the lime, The north-west glacier brought a mud of a reddish brown colour with many great blocks of stone. One of these may be seen in Towneley Park; another one from the Lake District still lies buried in the clay at the bottom of School Lane. Sometimes the glaciers brought sand which the waters swirled into pockets, such as may be found in many parts of the town. Sand and gravel mounds on Hameldon, Red Lees and Cliviger Laithe are due to deposits made in lakes formed by water which could not easily escape, The "​hummocky"​ mounds in the neighbourhood of Walk Mill seem to indicate that at that point the glacier ceased to retreat for a considerable time due to a return of the extreme cold weather conditions. \\
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